We use graphene bubbles to study the raman spectrum of graphene under biaxial e. Raman spectroscopy of graphene fb physik, fu berlin. Raman spectrum of graphene and graphene layers condensed. One of the most structurally important materials, graphene. Negative thermal expansion coefficient of graphene measured.
Raman spectroscopy and imaging can be used as a quick and unambiguous method to determine the number of graphene. Raman spectroscopy is a vibrational technique that is. The raman spectrum of graphene a great deal of detail on the fine structure of graphene. Polyurethane nanocomposites containing reduced graphene. Raman spectroscopy of graphene and related materials 3 graphene has received much attention recently in the scientific community because of its distinct properties and potentials in nanoelectronic applications 2. Figures 2b and 2c plot the evolution of the 2dband as a function of layers for 514. Defects can affect the electronic properties of a device while also offering a means by which to functionalize the local properties. Raman spectroscopy and imaging can be used as a quick and unambiguous method to determine the number of graphene layers. Raman spectroscopy showed that slow ions 30 graphene, introducing vacancies into the membrane idig 0. If we plot the intensity of scattered light as a function of its energy, we may find that several peaks or bands appear in the result, as shown in fig. Raman spectroscopy and the raman spectrum of graphene raman spectroscopy is a vibrational technique that is extremely sensitive to geometric structure and. Graphene consists of sp 2 carbon hexagonal networks, in which strong covalent bonds are formed between two adjacent carbon atoms. Characterizing carbon materials with raman spectroscopy joe hodkiewicz, thermo fisher scienti. Being highly sensitive to the physical and chemical properties of.
Raman spectroscopy was carried out under the 488 nm laser excitation over the temperature range. In the last few years, several methods have been proposed for the production of ultranarrow stripes of graphene, called graphene nanoribbons, which could find several applications. Discrepancy in the previously reported values is attributed to the interaction of graphene. We show the evolution of raman spectra with a number of graphene layers on different substrates, sio2si and conducting indium tin oxide ito plate. Characterizing graphene, graphite, and carbon nanotubes by. Research associate in raman spectroscopy of graphene and.
C haracterizing graphene is important because its unique properties make it a potential candidate for use in a variety of applications including electronics, heat transfer, biosensing, membrane technology, battery technology, and advanced. Basic principles of raman spectroscopy for graphene ntt. The strain caused by the tec mismatch between graphene. Observation of carrierdensitydependent manybody effects in graphene via tunneling spectroscopy victor w. Pdf study of antibacterial mechanism of graphene oxide. Evolution of raman spectra in nitrogen doped graphene zainab zafar a, zhen hua ni a, xing wu b, zhi xiang shi a, hai yan nan a, jing bai a, li tao sun b a department of physics, seu research center of converging technology, southeast university, nanjing 211189, china. Estimation of youngs modulus of graphene by raman spectroscopy. Raman spectroscopy of graphenebased materials and its. Characterization of graphene application note spectroscopy.
Characterizing carbon materials with raman spectroscopy. Results indicate that changing graphene type including perfect graphene, monovacancy graphene, bn. Raman spectroscopy as a versatile tool for studying the. It will drive students, researchers and engineers towards expanding future fundamental research frontiers and developing new applications for nanocarbons such as nanotubes, nanographites, and graphene as well as the use of raman spectroscopy for studying the science and nanometrology of these carbon nanostructures. Raman spectroscopy in graphene related systems grapheneinfo. We focus on the origin of the d and g peaks and the second order of the d peak. Raman spectroscopy in graphene related systems raman spectroscopy in graphene related systems recent work has shown that raman spectroscopy has potential to become one of the most important tools for nanoscience and nanometrology, i. Tipenhanced raman spectroscopy of graphenelike and. Scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy of graphene. Recently, graphene and other graphene based materials have become an essential part of composite science and technology. Characterization of graphene by raman spectroscopy.
Spectroscopy groupand materials group nanomaterials and wafer scale graphene transfer kim et al nature 2010 mechanical peeling off in water support graphene nior cusio 2 ni or cu sio 2 rapid etching with fecl 3 aq graphene on polymer support graphene on arbitrary substrate transfer patterning patterned graphene on ni patterned graphene. Temperature dependence of the raman spectra of graphene and. Raman spectroscopy of graphene stefan ulonska free university of berlin 01142014 stefan ulonska fu berlin raman spectroscopy of graphene 01142014 1 27. The distinct behaviour of raman modes of different orders is discussed. A comparison of the raman spectra of singlelayer graphene and bulk graphite ab stacked can be seen in fig. The raman spectroscopy of graphene and the determination of. Raman spectroscopy optimizes graphene characterization. Evaluating arbitrary strain configurations and doping in.
Jul 14, 20 raman spectroscopy in graphene related systems download here. The graphene d peak is a single sharp peak, while in graphite is a band consisting of two peaks d 1 and d 2 15. Thermo fisher scientific, the birches, imberhorne lane, east grinstead, west sussex rh19 1ub, uk. Raman spectroscopy is used extensively to characterize graphene, as the material is composed almost entirely of symmetric sp2 bonded carbon which is represented in great detail in the raman spectrum. Infrared spectroscopy, inelastic neutron scattering, electron energy loss spectroscopy, exafs, and photoemission spectroscopy. Chemical and bio sensing using grapheneenhanced raman. Graphene is a twodimensional 2d material consisting of a single sheet of sp2 hybridized carbon atoms laced in a hexagonal lattice, with potentially wide usage as a raman enhancement substrate, also termed graphene. Tipenhanced raman mapping of local strain in graphene ryan beams1, luiz gustavo cancado2, ado jorio2, a nick vamivakas1 and lukas novotny3 1institute of optics, university of rochester, rochester, ny 14627, usa. Probing the shear and layer breathing modes in multilayer. Ra 50 perspectives on raman spectroscopy of graphene. One of the most important functions of raman spectroscopy on the study of graphene is the accurate information it can provide regarding the number of layers of graphene 66. Indirect processes are also part of the ordinary absorption excess in the uv. In the past six years, there has been a significant step forward in the understanding of raman spectroscopy in graphene, fuelled by new results on doping1927, edges2833, strain and stress3440.
Key words graphene, raman spectroscopy, raman imaging. Probing the nature of defects in graphene by raman spectroscopy. Graphene assisted terahertz metamaterials for sensitive. This reflects the evolution of the electronic structure and electronphonon interactions. Can anyone help with raman spectroscopy of graphene and. Four layer graphene 4lg consists of the stacking of two unit cells of the type shown in fig. Characterization of graphene using raman spectroscopy.
Probing layer number and stacking order of fewlayer graphene. Pdf raman spectroscopic characterization of graphene. Observation of carrierdensitydependent manybody effects. Raman spectroscopy of graphite 2273 e 2g a 2u b 2g e 1u e 2g b 2g e 1u b 2g a 2u e 2g r 1582 cm. We found that the intensity ratio of the d and d peak is maximum for sp. Their unique properties are not only restricted to graphene but also shared with derivative compounds like graphene oxide, reduced graphene oxide, functionalized graphene, and so forth. While raman spectroscopy is a useful technique for characterizing sp2 and sp3 hybridized carbon atoms, including those in graphite, fullerenes, carbon nanotubes, and graphene. Observation of active sites for oxygen reduction reaction on nitrogendoped multilayer graphene. These features are related to the electronic band structure of graphene.
This implies that nitrogen close to carbon in nitrogendoped graphene is. Graphene probing layer number and stacking order of fewlayer graphene by raman spectroscopy yufeng hao, yingying wang, lei wang, zhenhua ni, ziqian wang, rui wang, chee keong koo, zexiang shen, and john t. The g and 2d raman peaks change in shape, position and relative intensity with number of graphene. Graphene covered silicon, with its strong ssdna binding layer, did not produce any spectral changes either fig. Graphene is the basic structural element of carbon allotropes such as fullerenes, nanotubes or graphite. Perspectives on raman spectroscopy of graphene abstract this application note explains what the raman spectroscopy can bring into the analysis of graphene. Heller 1, 2, y uan y ang 2, lucas kocia 2, wei chen 1, shiang f ang 1, mario. Controllable sizeselective method to prepare graphene quantum. Jul 05, 2011 the thermal expansion coefficient tec of singlelayer graphene is estimated with temperaturedependent raman spectroscopy in the temperature range between 200 and 400 k. In our analysis we first extract the bare peak shift of the g and 2d modes by eliminating their splitting due to shear strain. Buy raman spectroscopy in graphene related systems on free shipping on qualified orders. Raman spectroscopy of borondoped singlelayer graphene. Highpressure raman spectroscopy of graphene condensed. After a brief overview of the discovery and the raman study of new forms of carbons such as intercalated graphites, carbon fiber, fullerenes, nanotubes, the invaluable contribution of late professor m.
Raman spectroscopy, sensitive to geometric structures is used in the study of allotropes of carbon as they differ only in the nature of bonding and position of the carbon atoms. We show that raman spectroscopy and imaging can be used as a quick and unambiguous method to determine the number of graphene layers. Raman spectroscopy and imaging of graphene springerlink. Spectroscopy of graphene with a magic twist when two graphene sheets are stacked so that there is a specific angle between them, fascinating properties reminiscent of hightemperature. The aim is to set up a new raman spectrometer working at ultralow frequencies, with multiple layer lines from ir to uv and with low and high temperature and magnetic field capabilities.
Every phonon eigenvector of graphene gives rise to two vibrations of graphite. We show that raman spectroscopy and imaging can be used as a quick and unambiguous method to determine the number of graphene. C haracterizing graphene is important because its unique properties make it a potential candidate. Halsall4 1school of physics and centre for science at extreme conditions, university of edinburgh, edinburgh eh9 3jz, united kingdom.
Raman spectroscopy optimizes graphene characterization mark wall thermo fisher scientific madison, wis. Raman spectroscopy is a powerful tool to characterize the different types of sp 2 carbon nanostructures, including twodimensional graphene, onedimensional nanotubes, and the effect of disorder in their. However, in order to study graphene based devices, it is important to distinguish the number of graphene layers and quantify the effect of disorder on its properties. In this study, tipenhanced raman spectroscopy ters is used to characterize graphene like and graphitic platelets composed of a few layers of graphene. Observation of active sites for oxygen reduction reaction. Potential input from technique raman spectroscopy is the characterization of choice for carbon phases in general and for graphene and graphene. Color online a raman spectrum of graphene irradiated by electron beam. Tipenhanced raman mapping of local strain in graphene. A position exists for a research associate on raman spectroscopy of graphene and related materials as part of a eu funded grant.
The basics of analysis and some examples are presented. These immediately indicate that a bilayer has a much broader and upshifted 2d band with respect to. Raman spectroscopy of graphene on different substrates and. Since graphene, a single sheet of graphite, has all of its carbon atoms on the surface, its property is very sensitive to materials contacting the surface. Single, double, and multilayer graphenes have also been differentiated by their raman fingerprints. However, the antibacterial mode of action of go is. The sp 2 raman spectroscopy and xray photoelectron spectroscopy to guide the development of graphene based materials t. The unit cell for monolayer graphene 1lg contains two carbon atoms, a and b, each forming a triangular 2d network, but displaced from each other by the carboncarbon distance a cc 0. The raman spectrum evolution with increasing number of layers reflects the evolution of the electronic structure and electronphonon interactions raman spectroscopy is a quick, highthroughput, nondestructive technique for the unambiguous identification of graphene layers. Raman spectroscopy of graphene and related materials 5 seen in fig. Sep 29, 2015 raman spectroscopy has become an invaluable tool for graphene characterisation, yet the nature of the broadening of the raman 2d line remains unclear.
The measurements of interlayer vibrations in multilayer graphene mlg have triggered a huge effort to understand phonons, electronelectron, electronphonon, magnetophonon interactions and the effect of layer number, stacking sequences, and layer orientations on the raman spectroscopy. Moreover, the areas of different number of graphene layers were clearly identified using spatially resolved micro. Stefan ulonska fu berlin raman spectroscopy of graphene. Raman spectroscopy of borondoped singlelayer graphene acs. Graphene has many unique properties that make it an ideal material for fundamental studies as well as for potential applications. Apr 29, 2009 raman 2d band is especially sensitive to the number of graphene layers. The d peak second order changes in shape, width, and position for an increasing number of layers, reflecting the change in the electron bands.
The g and 2 d raman peaks change in shape, position and relative intensity with number of graphene layers. Introduction the novel advanced material, graphene. Raman spectroscopy is a powerful tool to characterize the different types of sp 2 carbon nanostructures, including twodimensional graphene, onedimensional nanotubes, and the effect of disorder in their structures. Enhancement of lattice defect signatures in graphene and.
Raman spectroscopy is the inelastic scattering of light by matter. The novel advanced material, graphene, first reported in science in. Trilayer graphene 3lg in turn contains three layers, two of which are like bilayer graphene and the third layer has atom a 3 over a 1 and atom b 3 over b 1 as shown in fig. Jiangbin wu ab, miaoling lin ab, xin cong ab, henan liu a and pingheng tan ab a state key laboratory of superlattices and microstructures, institute of semiconductors, chinese academy of sciences, beijing 83, china b cas center of excellence in topological quantum computation, and college of. Our gruneisen parameters are in excellent agreement with the theoretical values. View the article pdf and any associated supplements and figures for a period of 48 hours. Graphene oxide go is extensively proposed as an effective antibacterial agent in commercial product packaging and for various biomedical applications. The 2d raman band has characteristic line shapes in single and bilayer graphene. Raman spectroscopy of graphene based materials and its applications in related devices. For example, the inphase combination of the two layers. Highpressure raman spectroscopy of graphene john e. It is found to be strongly dependent on temperature but remains negative in the whole temperature range with a room temperature value of. Raman spectroscopy and the raman spectrum of graphene.
The raman spectroscopy of graphene and the determination. The g mode peak position and the intensity ratio of g and 2d bands depend on the preparation of sample for the same number of graphene layers. Reassessing graphene absorption and emission spectroscopy. Origin of new broad raman d and g peaks in annealed graphene. In the past six years, there has been a significant step forward in the understanding of raman spectroscopy in graphene. A new raman metric for the characterisation of graphene oxide. The g and 2d raman peaks change in shape, position and relative intensity with number of graphene layers. In situ highpressure raman spectroscopy is used to study monolayer, bilayer, and fewlayer graphene samples supported on silicon in a diamond anvil cell to 3. Lanzara and feng wang department of physics, university of california at berkeley, berkeley, california 94720, usa. The focus is on raman spectroscopy of mono and bilayer graphene, particularly perturbations that have a significant influence on the raman spectra. However, unlike the other sensing platforms, the graphene combined nanoslot. Perspectives on raman spectroscopy of graphene horiba.
We describe the essential raman scattering processes of the entire first and secondorder modes in intrinsic graphene. This work discusses why sp 2 nanocarbons can be considered as prototype materials for the development of nanoscience and nanometrology. However, in order to study graphene based devices, it is important to distinguish the number of graphene. Evolution of raman spectra in nitrogen doped graphene. We first discuss the firstorder and the doubleresonance dr secondorder raman scattering mechanisms in graphene. Jan 18, 2016 raman spectroscopy is among the primary techniques for the characterisation of graphene materials, as it provides insights into the quality of measured graphenes including their structure and. Brar,1,2 sebastian wickenburg,1 melissa panlasigui,1 cheolhwan. Understanding the role of defects in graphene is the key to tailoring the properties of graphene and promoting the development of graphene based devices. Raman spectroscopy of graphene and bilayer under biaxial.956 1469 755 825 457 1481 903 739 1232 308 961 534 919 477 129 580 285 1004 357 1012 871 365 921 25 482 1279 832 1127 828 1436 823 1267 1403 1147 471 933 987 840 407 1465 803 208 167 42 64 572 826 1125 196 729 613