Sweet sorghum is any of the many varieties of sorghum which have a high sugar content. There are multiple cultivars of sorghum available for use as a cover crop including sorghumsudangrass hybrids sorghum bicolor. Interest is accumulated until the crop is harvested. Guidelines for the eu model to process sweet sorghum as energy crop 37. Paratillage was performed every third year after sorghum harvest when the soil profile was relatively dry. Dual purpose grain sorghum varieties are added to the 100 percent yield potential list. Sorghum sorghum bicolor is one of the most important traditional cereal crops of the hotter and drier regions of the tropics and subtropics rao et al. Notillage management of wheat residues prior to planting sorghum resulted in nearly an inch more stored water in the soil profile, which. Dec 28, 2016 if corns high input costs make you queasy, another grass crop exists that might fit some of your acres.
Fertile, welldrained soils are important to optimize. Strategy for the global ex situ conservation of sorghum. Crop rotations will include non fragile see table 2, high residueproducing see table 3 crops during at least 25 percent of the rotation. As it is a very diverse crop, sorghum genetic fingerprinting requires an efficient marker system. Interest on operating capital is determined by using a shortterm interest rate obtained from agricultural lenders and making a charge against capital outflows as the production process takes place. A study conducted in four sub regions hamelmalo, segeneyti, tesseney and goluj of eritrea to.
Sweet sorghum for biofuel in nebraska 7 siteyr in nebraska in 20072008 rainfed deep silt loam, loam, or silty clay loam soil previous crop. It is grown for home consumption unless there is a bumper crop, or if cash is needed. In 2006, corn was grown on the ne lysimeter field, and the forage sorghum was grown on. Grain sorghum is a grass crop similar to corn, but sorghum has more tillers figure 2 and more finely branched roots than corn. The main importers of sorghum are japan, mexico, the former ussr cis and venezuela. Grain sorghum has long since been a major grain crop for the texas panhandle and parts of kansas. Developing countries also use sorghum plant products for cooking fuel. Sorghum is used as a drought tolerant, summer annual rotational cover crop either alone or seeded in a warm season cover crop mixture. Most commercial sorghum cultivars are hybrids containing two or more dwarfing genes that limit height to three to four feet at the flag leaf, producing a more compact plant that is easier to harvest. Moench is an indigenous crop to africa, and though commercial needs and uses may change over time, sorghum will remain a basic staple food for many rural communities.
A break from winter cereals can provide for the longterm insect, weed and disease management benefits and shortterm potential profits. Fertilizer suggestions for grain sorghum, nebguide g1669 pdf, 593 kb 4 pages. Producers must provide documentation, such as seed tickets and invoices, for grain sorghum dual purpose varieties harvested as other than grain to substantiate the variety planted and harvested. Dryland sorghum depletes soil moisture more than other crops. The forage sorghum hybrid was a brown mid rib variety that reportedly has a higher digestibility bean et al. It is a crop that can withstand substantial water shortage and produce acceptable yields as long as the growing season is favorable for its maturity. Sorghum ranks fifth in worldwide economic importance among cereal crops and is one of the most important summer annual grasses of pakistan. The crop profilepmsp database, including this document, is supported by usda nifa. Grain sorghum ipm guide alabama cooperative extension system. This plant may be known by one or more common names in.
Grain sorghum can be grown on many different soils. Following this aggressive grass cover crop with a legume cover crop can be part of a plan for restoring soil health in overfarmed fields. The previous crop in 2005 was irrigated grain sorghum. In areas with uncertain and erratic rainfall sorghum is a preferred crop. However, it is quite tolerant of shallow soil and droughty conditions. Sorghum production introduction sorghum sorghum bicolour l. There are multiple cultivars of sorghum available for use as a cover crop including sorghum sudangrass hybrids sorghum bicolor. Crop rotations will include non fragile see table 2, high residueproducing. Moench is a crop indigenous to africa, where it appears to have been domesticated in ethiopia about 5 000 years ago. A multidisciplinary approach involving researchers and extension personnel was used to determine production practices and input. With the 2014 farm bills pilot program, many states beganproducing hemp for fiber, grain, or flower. Additionally, the 2018 farm bill listed hemp as an agricultural commodity, leading to even more states, including alabama, signing on.
Sorghum is cultivated for grain and as a major food crop in much of south asia, africa, and central america. Notill sorghum crops following winter cereals consistently yield 0. Sweet sorghum will thrive under drier and warmer conditions than many other crops and is grown. University of missouri extension southeast missouri crop. Information from the cgsrvp fields is used to improve and refine recommendations to meet the needs of arkansas grain sorghum farmers and identify areas which need additional research. At this aim the sweethanol technical manual has been planned in order to. It is a major crop for many poor farmers, especially in africa, central america, and south asia. To manage the sorghum crop for maximum production, the producer must understand how the plant grows and develops and what factors affect its growth, development, and nutrient. L5439 sorghum tillage publications soil and crop sciences. By the early 1900s, grain sorghum was recognized as a drought tolerant crop that would outperform corn in the arid regions of the southern great plains. Grain sorghum, mabele, amazimba, amabele origin and distribution sorghum is the 5th most important grain crop after wheat, maize, rice and barley. Sorghum will yield best on deep, fertile, welldrained loamy soils.
Sorghum flour production manual for compatible technology. The term millet is used loosely to refer to several types of small seeded annual grasses fao and icrisat, 1996, belonging to species under the five genera in the tribe paniceae, namely. In addition to these uses of the grain, sorghum crop residues and green plants also provide sources of animal feed, building material, and fuel for. Sorghumsudangrass is also a good cover crop choice if you are trying to improve wornout soils. Hemp is a new crop for alabama and for the united states. Grain sorghum production in the midssouth ut crops. Evapotranspiration of corn and forage sorghum for silage. Selection of grain sorghum hybrids veteran sorghum producers remember going. Vanderlip sorghums importance as a feed grain has increased in the u. Sorghum is increasingly used as a biomass crop to meet worldwide societal expectations in terms of bioenergy regassa and wortmann, 2014. Choosing rotation crops fact sheet shortterm profits, longterm payback crop rotations, particularly those that include nitrogenfixing pulses, are forging a permanent place in northern region farming systems. Additionally, the 2018 farm bill listed hemp as an agricultural commodity, leading to even more states, including alabama, signing on to grow hemp in 2019.
Sorghum and sudangrass are warm season grass cover crops that can provide good weed suppression, grazing and forge supply, in addition to the soil structure improvements that can be. Maize is a major staple food crop grown in diverse agroecological. Besides smothering weeds and adding organic matter to the soil, it can help penetrate compacted subsoil. Moench is the most important staple food crop in eritrea. Fertilzer nutrient needs for grain sorghum are based on expected yield, nutrient levels in the soil, and fertilizernitrogen costs. A study conducted in four sub regions hamelmalo, segeneyti, tesseney and goluj of eritrea to determined farmers perceptions on sorghum diversity, utilization, post harvest and production problems and their management practices using a semi. Loamy soil sorghum can be grown successfully on clay, clay loam, or sandy loam soils. It is now widely cultivated in dry areas of africa, asia, the americas, europe and australia between latitudes of. Worldwide, sorghum is ranked in the top 5 for cereal grains in production and acreage.
Globally, over half of all sorghum is used for human consumption. Sorghum is used for human nutrition all over the world 2, 6, 7, 10. We estimated genetic divergence among 29 sorghum sorghum bicolor genotypes, including. Introduction millet is a cereal crop plant belonging to the grass family, graminae fao, 1972. Goals objectives the broader objective of the project is the improvement of sorghum through genetic manipulation of a number of critical biotic disease and parasitic weed resistance, abiotic drought and cold tolerance, nutritional quality protein quality, digestibility, carotenoids, and bioenergy feedstock traits for the benefit of both domestic and international agriculture. Grain sorghum crop production agronomy kansas state. Soil management for sorghum nutrient application is often needed to optimize sorghum production. We thank the global crop diversity trust for spearheading the development of this, and related, crop conservation strategy, and the interest and support given by the grains research and development corporation grdc throughout this process. Part of the agricultural and resource economics commons, agronomy and crop sciences commons, and the food processing commons duville, kris emillee, sorghum flour production manual for compatible technology international cti. Grain sorghum is planted under dryland and irrigated conditions. Importance of sorghum in africa j r n taylor department of food science, university of pretoria, pretoria 0002, south africa, email. Corn, grain sorghum, and wheat 2017 planning budgets. Grain sorghum information purdue university agronomy extension.
Sweetstem sorghum is a multipurpose crop, yielding food in the form of grain, fuel in the form of ethanol from its stem juice, and fodder from its leaves and grain. A more detailed explanation of sorghumplant growth may be found in how a sorghum plant develops, kstate research and extension publication s3. The major producers of sorghum for domestic or foreign trade are the usa, argentina and australia. Use cultural operations, plant growth, and crop residues to reduce the predicted rainfall sheet and rill erosion for the crop rotation to the soil loss tolerance t identified for each field. Given its drought tolerance, sorghum is grown primarily as a dryland crop. If corns high input costs make you queasy, another grass crop exists that might fit some of your acres. Within most developing countries, the sorghum crop rarely reaches the market. Sorghum in crop rotations sorghum readily follows other crops in rotations, but crops following sorghum may have problems, especially if a winter grain is planted shortly after sorghum is harvested in the fall. In the usa, australia and south america, sorghum is grown mainly for animal feed. Fertilizer suggestions for grain sorghum, nebguide g1669 pdf, 593 kb 4.
Sorghum, like many grains, has a diversity of uses, including human consumption and animal feed. New herbicides for grain sorghum very little development of new herbicides acreage to small for effective return to companies must come from corn, soybean, cotton, wheat, or some other crop herbicide development we have screened, evaluated, and reevaluated many herbicides. Globally, it produces approximately 70 million tons of grain from about 50 million ha o f land. Although welladapted to indiana climate and soils, grain sorghum is a minor crop in the state. This document describes the biology of sorghum bicolor l. This document addresses the biology of sorghum sorghum bicolor l. Sorghum at the research station of the plant genetic resources unit, agricultural. Since purdue has conducted relatively little agronomic research on this crop, links are provided to grain sorghum information from other states where the crop is grown more widely. This plant may be known by one or more common names in different places, and some are listed above.1314 982 736 322 1341 196 388 777 888 711 1149 1117 600 44 66 1507 1492 915 589 1308 702 169 1438 477 201 1450 1293 748 1089 746 1407 651 525 59 1444 319 1240 104 604 1361 1381 791 713 97 531